Thursday, September 3, 2020

Management Techniques Used in Mcdonalds Stores Free Essays

The executives Techniques utilized in McDonalds Date: 17/12/2010 Contents: Pg 1 †Title page Pg 2 †Contents Pg 3 †Executive Summary Pg 4 †1. 0 Terms of Reference 2. 0 Procedure 2. We will compose a custom exposition test on The executives Techniques Used in Mcdonalds Stores or then again any comparable point just for you Request Now 1 Primary Research 2. 2 Secondary Research 3. 0 Findings 3. 1 Principles of logical administration Pg 5 †3. 2 Principles of Taylorisms 3. 3 McDonaldization 3. 4 Individual Investigation Pg 6 †3. 5 Motivation 4. 0 Conclusion Pg 7 †5. 0 Recommendations 6. 0 Reference List 7. 0 Bibliography Executive Summary This report was delivered to take a gander at the administration and inspiration techniques cap are utilized in McDonald’s drive-through joints, and was mentioned by the Senior Executive of McDonalds. The primary discoveries were that there are impacts of the hypotheses of F. W. Taylor and George Ritzer and was inferred endless supply of the exercises in McDonalds, there are obvious employments of logical administration utilized in McDonalds eateries, and this has a thump on impact on the inspiration of staff there. The suggestions of this report are that the administrators need to connect with the staff and attempt to ‘revamp’ the procedures that they have set up, and give them a more straightforward inspiration regarding the prizes that they get. 1. 0 †Terms of Reference This report is has been mentioned by the Senior Executive of McDonalds in September 2010, in light of a case made by Wilson (2010). Wilson proposes that there are close connections between the logical administration standards and the severe schedules and methods found in McDonald’s drive-thru eateries. This report will investigate logical administration standards and to check whether they do really affect the administration rules that are utilized McDonalds drive-through eateries and will quickly take a gander at the inspiration techniques for McDonald’s workers, and will incorporate perceptions of these strategies. The essential issues found in the perception of staff, was that the perception was constrained, and just watched the exercises of the ‘front-line’ representatives, serving the client, and couldn't stretch out this to the ‘beginning’ of the procedure to where the food is made on the premises. This report has been accumulated by a free scientist, who will consider through perception and exploration whether Wilson’s proposal bolsters the day by day schedules a client would discover when visiting such drive-through joints. 2. †Procedure The accompanying strategies were embraced so as to break down the contextual investigation association. 2. 1 †Primary Research: The essential examination embraced was to watch the staff of different McDonalds eateries, these were seen from September 2010 to December 2010 to attempt to acquire an increasingly shifted perspective on the systems staff at McDonalds use. This is found under area 3. 4 †Individual Investigation. 2. 2 †Secondary Research: The optional examination attempted was through sites, books and online articles. This examination was utilized for the utilization of scholars utilized in the Findings segment of the report. | 3. 0 †Findings 3. 1 Scientific administration is a hypothesis that was at first evolved by Fredrick Winslow Taylor and this hypothesis was distributed in 1911. In his distribution, ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’, Taylor tends to the â€Å"importance of the bigger inquiry of expanding our national efficiency’ (Taylor, 1911). His hypothesis sets out to ‘Prove that the best administration is a genuine science, settling upon unmistakably characterized laws, rules and standards as a foundation’ (Taylor, 1911). Taylor accepted that laborers would accomplish as meager work as could reasonably be expected, and would create 33% to one-portion of their capacity, and accepted this was all inclusive, yet he needed to counter this and increment the efficiency of laborers. Taylor proposes through his own examination that numerous employments, including gifted callings can be separated into littler errands, which means the less requirement for talented skilled workers to finish occupations, and settle on their own choices. He led this examination in the steel business with Time Studies; he watched worker’s grouping of movements to decide the most ideal route for employments to be performed. The downsides of this strategy, despite the fact that it builds efficiency, are that it de-acculturates the activity job, and doesn’t take into consideration any idea of the specialist to be included. 3. 2 The four primary standards of Taylor, otherwise called Taylorisms, are: 1. Supplant ‘rule of thumb’ work strategies with techniques dependent on a logical investigation of the undertakings. 2. To deductively choose, prepare and build up every specialist instead of leaving the laborers to prepare themselves. 3. To co-work with laborers to guarantee that the logical created techniques are being followed. . To partition work almost similarly among the board and laborers, so supervisors apply the logical administration standards to arranging and the work, and the specialist to really play out the assignments. (www. netmba. com) These standards were received for the most part in manufacturing plants and mechanical settings, including Henry Ford’s vehicle creat ion industrial facilities. 3. 3 McDonaldization is a term that was made by George Ritzer dependent on the discoveries of Max Weber’s hypotheses of organization, in his distribution ‘The McDonaldization of Society’ (1995). George Ritzer clarifies that the drive-thru eatery is an outrageous case of legitimization process, where the primary center is that of productivity and consistency. Ritzer’s four fundamental standards of McDonaldization are: 1. Productivity †The quickest technique for finishing an errand. 2. Calculability †as far as McDonald’s clients, this way to serve the clients a lot of food in a brief timeframe, as far as McDonalds staff, it is the amount of work they do and not the quality in that they do it. 3. Consistency †Meaning whatever McDonalds eatery a client will go to, they would recognize what's in store, this applies to the item and the administration that they get. 4. Control †This is the command over the workers, everything is normalized and at every possible opportunity, human communication is supplanted by innovation. 3. 4 Individual Investigation-On leading an examination concerning what a client would understanding after visiting McDonald’s cafés, it was discovered that the experience bolsters the perspectives on Ritzer, and Taylor’s logical administration standards can be applied. On being served, a client is posed a similar routine inquiry, and the clients answer will be, once more, another content composed inquiry, I. e. What drink would you like with that, OK prefer to have an enormous feast? The representative that is serving will at that point either gather the request that the client has set, or there will be another individual from staff there to complete that specific assignment, so the individual ‘stationed’ at the till can proceed to serve the following client, whichever might be increasingly productive, with undertakings being separated. This experience alone can cover three of the four standards utilized by Ritzer, plainly; productivity, quickest technique for finishing the errand, calculability, serving clients with a lot of food in a brief timeframe and furthermore the amount of work that they do. The third guideline of Ritzer is upheld by visiting a couple of different McDonalds cafés, the client will recognize what's in store, as expressed prior with the ‘script-written’ inquiries after requesting food, to knowing the McDonald’s ‘menu’ and what you will get. The fourth rule of Ritzer’s, control, from going to McDonalds has been seen from this perception that the supervisors will control the staff, guaranteeing that assignments are done effectively, as while watching the movement behind the counter, there is consistently a director present, continually returning and fourth among focuses, and ‘checking over workers shoulders’. 3. 5 Motivation †To take a gander at the advantages that may propel a McDonald’s representative, it has been explored on what advance the opportunities that are accessible in McDonalds. From getting to the McDonald’s site www. mcdonalds. co. k, the organization publicizes that the opening are momentary occupations, yet the open door offers extraordinary preparing and improvement plans from apprenticeships to establishment degrees, yet, they don't move away from the genuine acknowledgment of the activity. An exceptionally concise breakdown of a group individuals job is expressed as, client support †expected to furnish clients with a fast and precise help. The site likewise advances the ‘rewards and benefits’ of being a McDonalds representative, these are; 28 days paid occasions, free private medicinal services (following three years administration), partner annuity conspire, a worker can trade ? 10 straightforwardly from their compensation to childcare vouchers, saving money on National Insurance and Tax, and furthermore speaking to conceivably single guardians, and furthermore rebate cards for huge retailers, including HMV and Marks Spenser’s. Be that as it may, albeit every one of these prizes and advantages may appear to be engaging, there is additionally a short video cut on the site, named ‘Think Again’. This is a short video, where a McDonalds worker has moved toward individuals ‘off the street’ to ask their perspectives on individuals who work in McDonalds. A few answers given are that McDonalds workers are uneducated, individuals ‘filling in the middle of genuine jobs’ and that a vocation at McDonalds is a final hotel, notwithstanding, the representative who was leading the short ‘interviews’ was a college understudy, at present examining law, when this was advised to the individuals who she was conversing with,

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Jet Blue in the United Kingdom Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Fly Blue in the United Kingdom - Research Paper Example As a MNE, Jet Blue additionally benefits Aruba, The Bahamas, Puerto Rico, Mexico and Bermuda. Fly Blue can contend with a lot bigger U.S.- based carrier organizations, for example, American Airlines as the business has had the option to shed a lot of its high working costs identified with gracefully chain and armada the board by keeping up a lean tasks technique (Jet Blue, 2011). Value decreases as lower and serious ticket costs are cultivated through its lean plan of action that makes Jet Blue an alluring option in contrast to high-ornamentations carrier organizations. A nation where Jet Blue doesn't have advertise nearness is the United Kingdom, a for the most part appealing business sector for remote direct venture by the association. The United Kingdom keeps up a critical carrier foundation that will help Jet Blue in setting up a brought together center point so as to serve the UK showcase successfully. Significant redesigns to such air terminals as Heathrow International have gi ven more traffic space and possibility for organized and opportune appearances and flights. Close by the framework exists late government deregulation of the aircraft business that had once controlled evaluating and built up hostile to imposing business model enactment by significant bearers. This has expelled a portion of the money related and administrative boundaries to new section via aircraft contenders, making the United Kingdom a feasible market for direct venture. Another bit of leeway of putting resources into the United Kingdom is the financial condition. Right now, the United Kingdom despite everything estimates its money against the Pound Sterling, a technique for secluding instability and hazard related with the current Eurozone financial emergency identified with the Euro. The UK Pound Sterling is at present worth $1.61 when contrasted with a solitary U.S. dollar. Fly Blue right now has set up an entirely feasible and very much created gracefully foundation inside the United States, giving it numerous near focal points according to obtainment. By putting resources into the United Kingdom, Jet Blue can build up a modestly higher estimating structure that is relative to the British Pound Sterling, giving benefit chances of around 60 percent, particularly while moving materials acquired in the United States into the remote UK showcase where import evaluating dangers are drastically diminished contrasted with this a lot higher-esteemed Sterling cash. Acquisition costs for on-board tasks the board will be in a general sense more affordable than in the United States if not acquired locally in the United Kingdom. There is, in any case, a noteworthy detriment to entering the United Kingdom for direct speculation. There are at present a wide range of ease transporters, for example, RyanAir and Air Asia, that give comparative minimal effort and low-ruffles choices for purchasers and business explorers. Deregulation happening over the most recent couple of years has evacuated passage hindrances to these organizations that presently have high income and impressive positive brand notoriety with value delicate customers. Indeed, even Virgin Airlines offers comparative minimal effort approach permitting this bearer and those, for example, RyanAir and Air Asia to have near and upper hands in estimating and quality. Fly Blue is anything but a notable brand name in the United Kingdom which could give a lot greater expense portion toward the limited time work, (for example, publicizing and web based advertising) so as to contend in this powerful serious market. Limiting outside trade dangers isn't that convoluted for Jet Blue, considering the monetary forms consistently exchanged this market. The Euro and the Pound Sterling are both esteemed a lot higher than the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Essentials of The U.S Health Care System

Question: Compose an exposition onEssentials of the U.S Health care framework. Answer: This video on Chapter: 6 of book Essentials of the U.S Health care framework depicts realities about U.S wellbeing financing framework where supplier incited request is a significant risk for the best possible working of financing framework. From, the video plainly U.S human services financing framework is exceptionally influenced by private subsidizing framework offering ascend to supplier incited request. Henceforth, the general expense of the social insurance framework is extremely high in the United States. The most extreme use happens for overseeing care and administrator coming about a high medicinal services upkeep cost. Be that as it may, just 3% of $ 2,593 billion GDP in 2010 was spent on general wellbeing. In this way, for controlling this ethical danger it is prescribed to expand general wellbeing financing process. This video clarifies that any ethical peril on financing framework can likewise prompt significant outcomes and arranged repayment systems work to start a posi tive effect on by and large authority over these risks. The video bargains on examining the impacts of financing and protection in the human services framework. The key arguments are good risks of financing structures including supplier instigated request, point by point depiction on medicare protection parts and health care coverage followed by a clarification on one powerful repayment methodology used in protection. In conclusion, the video depicts endeavors to quicken the youngsters medical coverage in U.S. The video gives information about the ethical issue of supplier incited request in the financing framework just as technique to control this deformity. In my expert profession, I can utilize this data for executing the suggested repayment methodology of DRGs, APCs, RUGs and HHRGs to control the wellbeing uses in my working zone.

Abnormal Psychology Problem Excessive Use Of Mari Essay Example For Students

Anomalous Psychology Problem: Excessive Use Of Mari Essay juana And Alcohol Contextual analysis Anomalous Psychology Issue Exorbitant utilization of cannabis and liquor, particularly inside the most recent 2 years. Kurt started drinking and utilizing cannabis at age 14 and by age 15 alluded to the utilization as substantial. Regardless of as of late being gotten for the robbery of his folks TYME card and $400, which brought about him being compelled to join an AODA gathering, he still keeps on utilizing all the time. He has likewise gone to work while inebriated and went to a school move affected by pot. Accordingly he was terminated from his activity and needed to experience a pee screen so as to again be permitted once more into his specific school. Despite these outcomes, 17-year-old Kurt still employments. Foundation Information Segment: Male, age 17, white. Early life: The most youthful child in a two parent family, one more seasoned sibling, one perished sibling, and a more youthful sister. The most established child was murdered in an oddity mishap around six years prior. Kurt communicates that since the mishap (which he doesnt recollect) home life as been troublesome. His mother has mental and AODA issues and has been determined to have Munchausen condition. He had a decent connection with his dad. Relationship with sibling not excellent. Current home life: Lives at home with the two guardians and more youthful sister in a solitary family house. Staying more seasoned sibling moved out, as of late. Normal white collar class neighborhood. Public activity: Many companions with three to four being close. He appreciates being around individuals a large portion of the time. Training: Currently goes to a parochial school, is on time for graduation. Hes in the eleventh grade and getting passing evaluations (C-normal). Business: Currently working low maintenance after school and ends of the week. Past occupation he was terminated for appearing inebriated, be that as it may, has figured out how to keep a late spring activity throughout the previous two years. Military: N/A Wellbeing: He appraised current wellbeing as poor, expressing terrible lungs from past sessions with pneumonia, and an awful back because of a 17% ebb and flow of the spine causing muscle fits in his lower back. Impediments: None State of mind: No history of discouragement or insanity. Rest: Occasional bad dreams (2 to multiple times month to month). Hunger: No issues. Sexual capacity: N/A History of lost awareness: Has dropped while drinking. Hospitalization: Twice for pneumonia. Medicine: None Liquor/sedate use: Heavy utilization of weed and incessant use of liquor. Has likewise explored different avenues regarding opiates which were taken from his mom. Psychedelic drugs, including corrosive and shrooms. He is additionally a pack-a-day cigarette smoker. Perceptions and Behaviors Demeanor: Good affinity during meeting, helpful, straight to the point, and open. Appearance: Unremarkable. Engine: Posture drooped, appeared to be apprehensive, somewhat upset, in any case, held eye to eye connection. Discourse: Adequate and normal. Language: Good jargon, ordinary. Consideration: Adequate. Memory: Could not recollect careful year his sibling kicked the bucket. Something else, memory appeared to be fine, with precise detail. State of mind: No downturn or craziness. Has had infrequent musings of self destruction, yet never endeavored. In the past has had outrage the board issue, and saw an advisor (after protests by instructors) from 1987 to 1990. Influence: Appropriate and ordinary. Self-evaluation: Adequate. Understanding: Consistent with capacities. Judgment: Adequate. Contemplations: Appropriate to content, no fears, fixations, and so on. Observation: Normal. Demeanor towards sickness: Recognizes he has an issue, however doesnt consider it to be not kidding, along these lines isn't spurred to fix, or work on the issue. Conclusion Hub I: Substance misuse, especially liquor and cannabis, verging on substance reliance. Hub II: N/A Hub III: Curvature of the spine. Hub IV: Mother with noteworthy mental issues joined with AODA issues because of death of most established child. Pivot V: 90 Backing for determination Substance misuse Despite being gotten various occasions for drinking and medication use, and enduring the subsequent outcomes, Kurt will not keep away from taking an interest in these criminal operations. I at first idea that oppositional insubordinate confusion might be an increasingly suitable determination, however the negative, rebellious, and unfriendly angles are not so much present. Kurt appears to be resistant just so as to acquire the liquor or medications he needs. This mentality doesnt persist into different parts of his life. Treatment I suggest proceeded AODA bunch treatment, yet in addition think singular talk treatment would profit. I feel that the substance misuse is a manifestation of a fundamental issue, most likely the aftereffect of the stressors at home. .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7 , .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7 .postImageUrl , .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7 .focused content region { min-stature: 80px; position: relative; } .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7 , .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7:hover , .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7:visited , .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7:active { border:0!important; } .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7 .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7 { show: square; progress: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-change: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; mistiness: 1; change: murkiness 250ms; webkit-progress: darkness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7:active , .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7:hover { obscurity: 1; change: haziness 250ms; webkit-change: obscurity 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7 .focused content region { width: 100%; position: relative; } .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7 .ctaText { fringe base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: intense; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content embellishment: underline; } .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7 .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; text style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7 .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; outskirt: none; fringe sweep: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; textual style weight: striking; line-tallness: 26px; moz-fringe range: 3px; content adjust: focus; content enrichment: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-tallness: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: outright; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .ua948eeec945e1 80b6c65d0fe8716aaf7 .focused content { show: table; stature: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .ua948eeec945e180b6c65d0fe8716aaf7:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Autism Essay He may likewise be encountering some mellow melancholy and experience the ill effects of low confidence. Brain research Essays .

Friday, August 21, 2020

Nat King Cole Essay -- essays research papers

Nat "King" Cole Music is an all inclusive language, a language that many can talk; nonetheless, one that no one but few can ace. One of those bosses was Nat "King" Cole. A genuine legend, Nat not exclusively could convey a tune with his voice, yet additionally through his extraordinary aptitudes with the piano. Today, Nat is most associated with that delicate, relieving thus amazing voice; anyway he is perceived as one of the best jazz musicians ever. The man today known as Nat "King" Cole was really conceived in Nathaniel Adams Coles, in Montgomery, Alabama on March 17, 1917. By the age of four, his dad, Edward James Coles Sr. what's more, his mom, Perlina Adams Coles, concluded it would be best that the family move to Chicago. When Nat arrived at four years old, his dad quit his place of employment as a food merchant and moved his family to Chicago, where he turned into a minister. This choice would have hugy affected the family all in all, yet particularly on account of Nat. Moving to Chicago was the initial phase in Nat’s ascend to notoriety, where the establishment of a jazz hotshot would be manufactured. As a kid, Nat imagined to be a major band pioneer and soloist in the custom of his godlike object, Earl "Fatha" Hines. By twelve years of age, Nat was at that point playing the organ at chapel, astonishing for such a youngster just prepared by his mom. Afterward, Nat would be joined up with formal piano exercises, which just further add to his noteworthy collection. At fifteen years of age, Nat chose to drop the "s" in his name, to become Nathaniel Adams Cole. By the age 17, Nat framed a 14-piece band, made out of understudies from both Wendall Philips and Dusable High schools in Chicago. The band would circumvent Chicago, working for as meager as $2 or $3 per night. In 1936, Nat made his first account for Decca, as a feature of his sibling Eddie’s band, the Solid Swingers; be that as it may, his time with the band would not last. Later in 1936, Nat left Chicago for Los Angeles, where he would in the end land his large break. In Los Angeles, Nat joined an Eubie Blake’s restoration of "Shuffle Along", in 1936. Here he worked with an artist Nadine Robinson, who might later turn into his future spouse. Nat proceeded with his job in the melodic until it disbanded in Long Beach California, in 1937. When Shuffle’s run was finished, Nat turned out to be seriously associated with the c... ...f his time. During his prime, he was as well known as anybody, including the unbelievable Frank Sinatra. This is much increasingly exceptional when one considers the way that Nat would not play in isolated lobbies †his ubiquity was with the end goal that he was one of only a handful scarcely any African-Americans who could do as such. 	On February 15, 1965 the music world lost one of its greats. When his life was finished, he was a legend, having impacted any semblance of Oscar Peterson and Ahmad Jamal. Nat had performed with the absolute best including Duke Ellington and performed for probably the best, including the Queenâ ¨, he was even companions with John F. Kennedy. In spite of the fact that he is regularly recalled today as an extraordinary artist, he was likewise one of history’s most prominent jazz piano players. It is said that as a piano player, he built up the complicated right-hand style of started by Hines and the meager left-hand of Count Basiel. His records have been discharged and re-discharged and even right up 'til today they are as yet mainstream. Through the wonders of current innovation, Nat and his little girl, Natalie (who is likewise a notable craftsman) were brought together for an interpretation of the work of art, "Unforgettable", which he po sitively is.

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Is this the year youre applying to graduate school COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Is this the year youre applying to graduate school COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Is this the year youre applying to graduate school? Even if its not, we recommend you connect with schools that youre interested in early on. Graduate school applications can be time-consuming to gather all of the pieces for, especially if youre juggling several applications on top of your personal and professional life. You also want to make sure that the program you apply to is the best fit for your goals. Columbia SIPA will be participating in the APSIA Online Grad School fair on July 25.  Register today to learn more about what you can do with a SIPA graduate degree our alumni work in everything from international trade policy to counter-terrorism to social impact investing (and much more). APSIA stands for the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, a network of schools that demonstrate their excellence in career-focused, graduate-level, international affairs education. APSIA schools generally stress the application of theory to practical uses and are focused on helping students become meaningful agents of change. APSIA has a robust list of relevant Fellowships Scholarships  for those interested in policy and international affair graduate studies. If youre in the area, stop by the Summerfest mini graduate fairs coming up this month. SIPA alumni, current students and admissions staff will be here to answer your questions. Summerfest New York City July 17 from 6:00pm â€" 8:00pm International Affairs Building,  Columbia University 420 West 118th Street, Room 1501 New York, NY 10027 Summerfest Washington, D.C.  (July) July 24 from 6:00pm â€" 8:00pm Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies 1740 Massachusetts Ave. NW Washington, D.C. 20036 As a reminder, the Office of Admissions and Financial Aid is closing early today and will be closed tomorrow in observance of U.S. Independence Day.

Thursday, June 11, 2020

ACT Science Finding Trends and Patterns

One of the most important skills you need to master for success on the ACT Science test is how to quickly and accurately determine trends and patterns in figures and tables. Imagine you see the following figures on a Science passage (don’t worry about understanding what they mean right now; you don’t need to): Now imagine you see a question like this: Between days 1 and to and 22, we see that the percentage of patients infected increases only, so the answer is A. But What If Im Not Looking at a Graph? Trends and patterns questions might also refer to tables of data. In this case, you don’t have lines to help you and you need to look at increases and decreases in the values in the table to help you figure out the trend. So, imagine you see this table: And this question: As the percentage of patients infected with P. falciparum and treated with Drug Combination C decreased, the percentage of patients infected with P. vivax and treated with the same drug combination: A. increased only B. decreased only C. increased then decreased D. decreased then increased This one might trip you up if you don’t note one important detail: the chart shows â€Å"percent of patients free of parasites† NOT â€Å"percent of patients infected.† This is a common way that the ACT Science test might cause you to slip up. So if we look down the column for patients infected with P. falciparum and treated with Drug Combo C, we see that the numbers of patients free of the parasite increase (this, therefore means, that the number of patients infected decrease as we go down the column.) So we are looking to read the trend going down the column, not going up the column. I’d suggest drawing in an arrow there to keep it straight in your head: Now we need to look at what happens to the numbers in the Drug Combination C column under P. vivax as we follow the column in this same downward direction. We can see that the percent of patients free of parasites increases from 62 to 100 then decreases from 100 to 20. So this means that the number of patients infected decreases then increases, so our answer is D. This might seem a little confusing at first, but it is a good thing to get used to, as this will pop up all the time on the test. With all that in mind, let’s try a similar sample question! According to Table 1, as the atomic number increases from 8 to 9 to 10, the abundances: A. decrease, then increase B. increase, then decrease C. decrease only D. increase only Note that the last line of the table indicates that the abundance of element 9 must be less than 0.05%. The abundance therefore decreases from 0.79% at element 8 to 0.05% at element 9, then increases again to 0.10% at element 10. The answer is A. And, as weve seen, sometimes the pattern will be more visual than numerical: In Study 1, if the electrical activity of the resting volunteer had been measured for an additional 1 second, the voltages would have varied between approximately: A. -5 and +5 microvolts B. -25 and +25 microvolts C. -50 and +50 microvolts D. -100 and +100 microvolts From 0 to 1 second, we can see the range was always between +25 and -25. There is no reason to assume that there would be any change if we were to continue this experiment for an additional second. The answer to this pattern question is B. ACT Science Patterns: Vocabulary From time to time, you will see (seemingly) more complex pattern questions in ACT Science. Dont worry! Usually, these have to do with breaking down the vocabulary in the question and figuring out what to do with it. Some terms you might see include minimum or maximum levels, points of change, and/or direct and inverse variation. The minimum level is the smallest data point for a given entry. The maximum level is the largest data point for a given entry. Point of change occurs when preceding data have a different relationship to the remaining data. Direct variation means that two items are directly proportional: when one increases, the other increases. Inverse variation means that two items are indirectly proportional: when one increases, the other decreases. Finally, sometimes you will be given a graph and asked to extrapolate, or to extend the graph beyond the values on the axes to find an x-value or a y-value that is out of the given range. A word of warning: experiments or research is explained numerically in a table or graph, and those numbers could be explained in millimeters in one table and meters in another. If you accidentally count the millimeters as meters, you could be in big trouble. Pay attention to those abbreviations and keep track of the units! Don’t let them try to fool you. 🙂 A Final Thought on ACT Science Patterns Learning how to find patterns and trends on ACT Science tables and figures (and making sure you are following them in the right direction) is such an important skill to master to get a higher ACT Science score, so practice reading tables and figures to determine when values are increasing or decreasing, and most importantly, make sure you are looking at the right data!